The very low radioactive background of the Borexino detector, its large size, and the well proved capability to detect both low energy electron neutrinos and antineutrinos make an ideal case for the study of short distance neutrino oscillations with articial sources at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso.
The SOX experiment aims at the complete confirmation or at a clear disproof of the so called neutrino anomalies, a set of circumstantial evidences of electron neutrino disappearance observed at LSND, MiniBoone, with nuclear reactors and with solar neutrino Gallium detectors. If successful, SOX will demonstrate the existence of sterile neutrino components and will open a brand new era in fundamental particle physics and cosmology. A solid signal would mean the discovery of the first particles beyond the Standard Electroweak Model and would have profound implications in our understanding of the Universe and of fundamental particle physics. In case of a negative result, it is able to close a long standing debate about the reality of the neutrino anomalies, would probe the existence of new physics in low energy neutrino interactions, would provide a measurement of neutrino magnetic moment, and would yield a superb energy calibration for Borexino which will be very beneficial for future high-precision solar neutrino measurements.
The SOX experiment will use two powerful and innovative neutrino and antineutrino generators made of Cr-51 and Ce-144 respectively. These generators will be located at short distance from the Borexino detector and will yield tens of thousands of clean neutrino and antineutrino interactions in the internal volume of the Borexino detector. The experiment is expected to start in 2017 and will take data for about two years.